It is the specialty of dentistry that deals with tissue inflammation around the teeth (periodontium).
What is it, how common is it?
Inflammation is the result of the body's reaction to external stimuli that harms it.
In this disease, the cause is the microbial plaque around the teeth.
The microbial plaque is an almost invisible, soft, sticky layer of germs and toxins produced therefrom them,along with food debris, which adheres to the tooth surfaces, especially at the points joined to the gums. Approximately 700 different species of microbes have been detected to participate in plaque formation.
In the early stages of formation, most of them are harmless and are part of the normal microbial flora of the mouth.
However, if the dental plaque is not systematically removed with proper oral hygiene, the microbial layer is increased and its composition changes as the originally harmless microbes are replaced with dangerous for periodontal disease but also for caries.
An important role in the development of periodontal inflammation is heredity, smoking and some hormonal dysfunctions such as diabetes.
Teeth are held in the jawbone by the bones and gums, which surround and protect the bones from external factors.
In the early stages of the disease,inflammation is localized within the gums and is called gingivitis, which may be localized at some point or generalized. When it comes to the bone it is called periodontitis and depending on its severity, it can be characterized as early, middle or advanced. In periodontitis, gum detachment from the teeth and the gradual loss of the supporting bone result in the formation of pockets around the roots, which are a nest for even more germs. Periodontics are the most common inflammation in the human body. Approximately 9 out of 10 adults experience a minor or most serious periodontal problem, often unknowingly.